BUSINESS VALUATION / ASSESSMENT
Business Assessment is a crucial aspect of understanding what your business plan should look like. Think of your business as a car, and a business assessment as the blueprint for its design. While you might know your vehicle’s exact make, model, and mileage, you probably can’t remember all the details about its construction, such as the exact diameter of each of its hoses. The same goes for small businesses. If you install a hose that’s not the exact fit, the car will come screeching to a halt – and in this particular analogy, there are hundreds of hoses in varying sizes. So much happens and so many decisions are made on a monthly basis — without a business assessment it can be incredibly difficult for business owners to remember all of the details that can make huge differences in their operations and bottom line.
Asset-based business valuation methods
Sometimes referred to as the cost-based methods, these business valuation methods estimate the value of a business as the sum total of the costs required to create another business of equal economic utility.
Asset based business valuation methods are useful for accurate business purchase price allocation, an important element of structuring a business acquisition deal.
The central methods under the asset approach are these:
Asset accumulation method
Excess earnings method
The asset accumulation method is a framework for tabulating the market values of business assets and liabilities. The difference is the business value. Note that the method differs from the typical cost basis accounting balance sheet.
Important off balance sheet assets include the internally developed intellectual property, customer lists, and valuable business agreements. On the other side, the method accounts for contingent liabilities such as pending legal action judgments and costs associated with regulatory compliance.
A classical asset based business valuation method is Capitalized Excess Earnings, also known as the Treasury Method. In addition to business value calculation this method lets you determine the value of business goodwill.
Income-based business valuation methods
The income methods, as the name implies, determine the business value based on its income producing capacity and risk. The main business valuation techniques used by these methods are capitalization and discounting. Business risk is captured in the form of discount and capitalization rates.
Income business valuation methods most commonly used in business appraisals are:
Capitalization of earnings
Multiple of discretionary earnings
Discounted cash flow
The well-known capitalization method is Multiple of Discretionary Earnings. The Discounted Cash Flow business valuation method is the most common way of determining business value by discounting its income.
Market-based business valuation methods
These methods help you estimate the subject business value by comparison to the recent selling prices of similar businesses.
Professional business appraisals often include these market valuation methods:
Guideline publicly traded company method
Comparative transaction method
Both types of methods work by comparing the subject business to similar companies that sold recently. For private companies, the sales of similar privately owned businesses can offer a compelling source of market comparables. However, the quality of such data is usually not nearly as reliable as transaction data filed by public companies. Transactions involving small capitalization public companies are often used as evidence of business value for privately owned firms.
Valuation Formulas derived from comparable business sales are a standard way to determine the business fair market value.
Use of multiple methods in business appraisals
Using a number of business valuation methods is highly recommended for accurate determination of business value.
To conclude what a business is worth, you can take the results of several business valuation methods into account. This process is often referred to as business value synthesis.